1.0.0 Stinky Right-winger Factsheet By Socialism Done Left

1.0.1 Read Me

1.0.2 Other Worthwhile Factsheets

Useful URLs for This Factsheet

Lists of Factsheets

Multi-Category Factsheets Like This One

Socialist and Socdem Economics Factsheets

Social Issue Factsheets

1.0.3 Book Recommendations

Economics: About Capitalism

Economics: In Favor of Social Democracy and Developmental State

Economics: In Favor of Marksoc (Market Socialism)

Economics: In Favor of Plansoc (Planned Socialism)

Economics: In Favor of Worker Cooperatives

Economics: Post-Keynesian Economics and Analytical Marxian Theory

Institutional Design: Importance of Democracy and Markets, From Socdem-Proglib Perspectives

Effective Political Activism

Against Racialism

Historical Materialism

History of Socialism: Economics of the Soviet Union

1.0.4 Youtuber / Podcaster Recommendations

Socialists: Current Affairs

Socialists: Historical Discussions

Socialists: Theoretical Discussions

Socialists: Cultural Discussions

Social Democrats (Socdems)

Progressive Liberals (Proglibs)

1.0.5 Resources To Empower Your Research

Access Scientific Articles

Access Books

Access Old Webpages / Current Newspapers

Access Old Newspapers


2.0.0 Democracy, Voting, Civil Rights [axis One]

2.1.0 Efficacy Of Democracy

2.1.1 Scope Of Democracy

Over Time

Over Space

2.1.2 Effects Of Democracy

Civil Rights: Democracy Reduces Civilian Killings and Democide

Economics: Democracy Increases Economic Growth

Stability: Both Autocracy and Democracy Are Stable Government Forms

2.1.3 Opinion Polls About Democracy

Leftists Support Democracy

Direct Democracy

Support for Democracy Over Time

2.2.0 Pro-democracy Policies

2.2.1 Direct Democracy: Theory

Agenda Setting

Electronic Democracy

Economic Issues

Trustworthiness of Politicians

2.2.2 Multiparty Democracy Good

One-Party Rule and Regulatory Capture

2.2.3 Populism Bad (weak Evidence)

Populism Reduces Democracy: Bad Definition of Populism

Left Populism Also Reduces Democracy: Bad Definition of Populism

Populists Rule for Longer and Are More Likely to Be Ejected Than Voted Out (This Suggests They Centralize Power): Bad Definition of Populism

2.2.4 Compulsory Voting Good

Increased Turnout: Direct Effects

Increased Turnout: Reductions After Abolition

Increased Turnout: Law Passage Effects

Increased Representativeness: Income, Wealth, Class

Importance of High Turnout

Political Outcomes: Centrist Bias

Political Outcomes: Leftist Bias

Libertarian Objections: Freedom to Stay at Home

2.2.5 Democracy And Plutocracy In The Usa: Reviewing The Median Voter Theorem, Gilens And Page, And Biased Majoritarianism

Meta-Methodology Replication: >70% of Definitions Support Gilens, Remainder Don't Reject

Original Study:

Replication in the Netherlands

Replication in Sweden

Suggestive Evidence: Legislative Staffers Have Rich-Biased Perception of Constituencies

Mechanism: Lobbying vs Structural Power

Biased Pluralism Article: Poor Have Less Power but Some Power Using Better Metrics

Examining the Top 0.01%

Grossman Critique: Methods: Splitting Policies by Issue + Win Rates

Hersh Critique: Business Leaders Do Not Care and Voters Both Do and Don't Want Them Involved

Response to Bashir

What Do Megadonors Believe?

What Do Donors Believe?

Results by Party

Impacts on Policy

Suggestive Evidence: Media Ownership by the Ultra-Rich

Todo XXX Reread

2.2.7 Democracy And Plutocracy In The United States: Congressional Stock Returns


If congresspeople have higher-than-reasonable stock investment returns, it may suggest that they are using their position for financial benefit. However, the research on this question is mixed.

Ziobrowski Studies: Returns Higher Than Normal

Eggers Study: Returns Close to Normal, Only a Few High Results

2.2.8 Money In Politics Is Bad, Though Its Effects Are Weaker Than You Might Expect [TODO REREAD]

Causal: Citizens United Effects on Political Outcomes

Causal Evidence: Early Primary Fundraising Strongly Correlates With Vote Share in Primary Elections

Correlational: Campaign Contributions May Bias Judges Business: 2010-2012 Data (Weak: Not Significant for Most Election Types)

Correlational: Campaign Contributions May Bias Judges Business: 1995-1998 Data (Weak: Doesn't Compare to Appointed Judges)

Industry Control of State Legislatures: Model Bills




2.3.0 Justice System

2.3.1 Judicial Election Vs Judicial Appointment: Mixed Evidence


Quality: Elected Judges Are More Productive, Have Rates of Citation, and Are Equally Independent

Quality: Appointed Judges Have Better Decisions (Weak Article IMO Due to Definition of "Correct")

Independence: Elected Judges Tend to Vote in Favor of State Voter Preferences (Not Independent)

Independence: Appointed Judges and Partisan Judges Tend to Vote in Favor of the State Government (Not Independent)

Diversity: Little Difference

History of Judicial Elections

Rich vs Poor Spending on Law

Legal Aid: Per Capita Spending: Pretty Sources

Legal Aid: Per Capita Spending: Ugly Sources

2.3.3 Private Arbitration Bad

Arbitration vs Courts (Ancap Talking Point)

2.4.0 Court Packing

2.4.1 Constitutionality

Not Set by Constitution


2.4.2 Partisanship: History Of Escalation

Increasing Partisanship of Appointments


2.4.3 Partisanship: Lack Of Judicial Independence

Congressional Opinion Affects Supreme Court Decisions

Popular Opinion Affects Supreme Court Decisions

Popular Opinion May Not Affect Supreme Court Decisions

Effects on Judicial Legitimacy

2.4.4 Partisanship: Ideology Of Justices Over Time

Bailey Score

Martin-Quinn Score

2.4.5 Solutions: Term Limits


2.4.6 Solutions: Credible Threat Via Constitutional Hardball



2.4.7 Solutions: Lottery: Lower Court Partisanship

Gop Forced Vacancies

Gop Filled Vacancies

Gop Dominates Lower Courts

2.4.8 Solutions: Lottery: Instability From Randomness

2.4.9 Solutions: 5-5-5: Problems

Let Congress Rule

if the court can't find 5 justices to fill the "middle", the party who has control of Congress/President may simply choose not to rule on cases that year

Two Party Lock

this formalizes two party rule, which makes it harder to move towards a diverse party system.

2.4.10 Solutions: Problems With Impeaching Justices

it's hard.

2.4.11 Polling


Court Packing

Term Limits

2.4.12 Bastiat Debate


Game Theory

minimum demand: balanced courts; maximum demand: court reform --> game theory: structure demand in such a way that escalation (accepting minimum demand but rejecting maximum demand) is less desireable than reform (accepting maximum demand)


my proposal: the ranked choice term limited or RCTL supreme court

- 20 year term limit

^ prevents any president from appointing more than 8/20=40% of the court

^ prevents justices from exceeding historical term limit

- every 2 years, ranked choice selection of 5 justices (total court size: 50)

^ ensures ~2 lib, ~2 con, ~1 moderate

Bastiat Solutions: Lottery and 5-5-5 Court

Federalist Papers

Ginsberg Quotes

2.5.0 Media

2.5.1 Media Bias Towards Capitalists: Real And Significant

Media Supports Advertiser Narratives

Media Prefers Scandals to Policy

Media Prefers Sensationalism ("it Bleeds, It Leads"): Good Study

Media Prefers Sensationalism ("it Bleeds, It Leads"): Bad Study

2.5.2 Media Bias Toward Liberals/leftists: Mixture

Liberal Overrepresentation Among Journalists: Real

Conservative Overrepresentation Among Media Content: Real

Liberal or Conservative Bias on Youtube

Conspiracies to Keep Leftist Media Down

2.5.3 Publicly Funded Media Effective: Govtreon, News Vouchers, Media Vouchers, Journalism Vouchers

Background: Us Subsidized Media Extensively

Cjr's Citizenship News Voucher

Baker's Artistic Freedom Voucher

Public-Funded Sources Are Trustworthy

Public-Funded Sources Reduce Right-Wing Extremism

Todo XXX Reread

2.5.4 Echo-chambers / Echo Chambers: Very Real

Right-Wing Online Echo-Chamber

2.5.5 Fake News: Electoral Effects

Effects: 2016 Election

Fake News: Penetration

Fake News: General

Psychology: Fake News

Solution: Education

2.5.6 Fake News: Higher Prominence Among The Right

Right-Wing Sharing of Fake News

Right-Wing Belief in Fake News

Project Veritas Lies: Anecdotes

Fox News: Studies

Fox News Lies: Anecdotes

2.6.0 Polling

2.6.1 Why Polling Is Hard


2.6.2 Polls Accurate

Polls Were Accurate: Statistics

Polls vs Projections

Polls Were Accurate in 2016

Polls Were Accurate in 2018

2.6.3 Unsorted Unformatted

2.6.4 Socialism And Social Democracy

Understanding: Americans Identify Socialism With Equality and State Ownership

Understanding: Policies and Socialist Identity

Mixed Identities: Favoring Both Socialism and Capitalism

Specific Policies: Fairly Popular

Specific Policies: Wealth Redistribution: Trends: No Major Change

General Social Survey: Variables to Consider




Support for Term Socialism: Levels by Age: Higher Among the Young

Support for Term Socialism: Trends: Gallup [Not Increasing]

Support for Term Socialism: Trends: Pew [Not Increasing]

Support for Term Socialism: Trends: Yougov [Slightly Increasing]

Support for Term Socialism: Levels: Other Pollsters

2.6.5 Political View Change Over Time

Cohort Effects

Political Views Don't Change Over Time

Political Views Change Over Time

2.6.6 Perceptions Of Crime


2.6.7 Generation Z

Racism Declining

Good Polls

Shitty Poll From the Gild:

Shitty HHM Book Survey

Shitty Poll From Mycollegeoptions-Hispanic Heritage Foundation:

2.7.0 Persuasion

2.7.1 Persuasion: Basically Everything Works


The studies below show that lots of specific methods work. In my opinion, the correct synthesis of these results is that basically *all* methods of persuasion work. While some may work better than others, and may work better on different people, evidence works, logic works, debate works, empathy works, humor works.

Methods: Logos, Ridicule, Empathy: All Work

2.7.2 Persuasion: Deep Canvassing Works

Methods: Deep Canvassing: Compassion Works

2.7.3 Persuasion: Evidence Works

General Evidence: Evidence Changes Minds and There's No Backfire Effect

Specific Evidence: Misinformation Isn't Stronger, Evidence Still Works

Specific Evidence: There's No Major Partisan Cue Effect, Evidence Still Works

Contrary Study: MMR-Autism Link

2.7.4 Delivery Method: Debate Is An Effective Educational Tool

Debate: Excellent and Nuanced Video by Jangles Sciencelad

Strength of Debate: Educational Debate Achieves Deep Knowledge

Strength of Debate: Debate Encourages Better Critical Thinking [Stronger Evidence]

Strength of Debate: Debate Encourages Better Critical Thinking [Weaker Evidence]

Strength of Debate: Educates Viewers and Encourage Self-Education [Medium-strength Evidence]

Strength of Debate: Encourages Confidence [Medium-strength Evidence]

Strength of Debate: Critical Thinking Enables Debate Victories

Limit of Debate: Adversarial Debate Has Lower Respect, Satisfaction, Participation, Higher Hesitation [Stronger Evidence]

Limit of Debate: Higher Confidence [Far Weaker Evidence Than Above]

Limit of Debate: Alleged Gender Exclusivity (See Also Mumtaz as Counter-Example)

Limit of Debate: Encourages Entrenchment of Positions Defended

Philosophy Education: Effective in One RCT, Ineffective in One RCT

2.7.5 Delivery Method: Breadtube: Efficacy, Harassment, Etc.

Video Essays as a Form of Debate (See Also Description of Shaun in Lewis Marwick Partin 2021)

Effective Content Formats

Harassment: Causes of Harassment From Rightist Videos to Leftist Videos

Parasociality: Importance of Engagement/Entertainment in Getting Eyeballs

2.7.6 Delivery Methods: Other Effective Methods

Delivery: Op-Eds

Delivery: Tv News

Delivery: Forum Posts

2.7.7 Background: Standpoint Epistemology / Standpoint Theory Good

Cognitive Biases Favor the Powerful

3.0.0 Criminal Justice System [axis One]

3.1.0 Policing

3.1.1 Summary


Overpoliced but Underprotected: too much policing of small crimes, too little crime prevention overall

3.1.2 Todo

Scrape for Sources

Wandering Officers


Conservative Video



3.1.3 Police Funding And Defund The Police

Police Officers Over Time

Defund the Police: LAPD Meme Bad


3.1.4 Police Diversity And Police Brutality

3.1.5 Violent Crime And Police Brutality / Police Killings

International Comparisons

National Correlational Studies: Violent Crime vs Police Killings

International Correlational Studies: Homicides vs Police Killings Over Countries

3.1.6 More Cops Less Crime / Overpoliced And Underprotected: True But Complicated


More cops means less violent crime -- but at significant public expense, especially given the egregious underfunding of US welfare system. Re-allocation of cop time to *street presence* (or replaced/supplemented by community volunteers) may have similar effects.


Todo Other Ways to Reduce Violence Than Cops

Other Solutions

More Cops Less Murder: Causal Evidence: Chalfin [Todo Xxx]

Literature Review: Early Studies Failed to Demonstrate Causality & Suffered From Endogeneity of Crime and Police Hiring

Causal Studies: Less Crime in General: Levitt 1997 (Elections as IV) and Followup (Firefighters and Municipal Workers as IV)

Causal Studies: Less Crime in General: Natural Experiments From the Terror Alert Level

Causal Studies: Literature Review & Instrumental Variable

Correlational Studies: Less Domestic Violence

Mechanism: Not Through Incapacitation but Through Deterrence

Mechanism: Not Through Incapacitation but Through Deterrence: Broken Windows: Empirically Invalid

Implications: Spend Less on Prisons and More on Cops

Implications: Reorient Cop Time Usage

Implication: More Workers, Shorter Shifts: Fight Fatigue [Xxx Reread]

Political Causes: Todo Reread

Clearance Rate

Underpolicing: Clearance Rate & Reporting Rate

Todo: Black Lives Matter Protests -- Todo Reread XXX -- See Published Responses, Eg the Gun Store Location Study (FFL)

3.2.0 Uncategorized

3.2.1 Rehabilitation Vs Retribution

Recidivism Over Time

Rehabilitation: Recidivism Decrease: Todo

Retribution: Recidivism Increase

Retribution Is Ineffective: Three Strike Laws

Recidivism: Negative Effects

3.2.2 Juvenile Incarceration

Effects on Crime

Effects on Economics

3.2.3 Drug Legalization And Drug Decriminalization

Marijuana Legalization



Colorado Legalization in 2014 (Jan 1)

Portugal Decriminalization in 2001


Public Opinion

"Kill Drug Dealers": Northern Ireland

"Kill Drug Dealers": Philippines

3.2.4 Death Penalty

Financial Harms

Effect on Crime: Consensus

Effect on Crime: Recidivism

Innocence Rate

Psychological Harms

3.2.5 Stranger Rape

3.2.6 Asset Forfeiture

3.2.7 Police Psychological Issues

Police Are More Likely to Abuse Their Spouses

4.0.0 Economics [axis Two]

4.1.0 Inequality And Immobility

4.1.1 Scope Of Inequality And Immobility

All: Usa

Wealth Inequality: Usa

Wealth Inequality: Global

Wealth Inequality: Stocks

Income Inequality

Income Mobility

Income Inequality Over Time

4.1.2 Causes Of Inequality And Immobility

Cyclical Poverty and Childhood Poverty

Education Inequality

Income Inequality

Unmeritocratic Pay at the Top


Wasteful Consumption / Frivolous Consumption

Rise of Superstar Incomes (Probably Not Based on Genuine Productive Differences)

4.1.3 Piketty's R>g

"""Using a measure of portfolio returns to compute r minus g in Piketty s notation, we uncover an important finding. Even calculated from more granular asset price returns data, the same fact reported in Piketty (2014) holds true for more countries, more years, and more dramatically: namely r >> g. [....] Benhabib and Bisin (2016) show that in a wide class of models featuring stochastic returns to wealth, a higher gap between r and g increases the Pareto index of the steady-state wealth distribution, making it more unequal. [....] Our research speaks directly to the relationship between r, the rate of return on wealth, and g, the growth rate of the economy, that figures prominently in the current debate on inequality. One robust finding in this paper is that r >> g: globally, and across most countries, the weighted rate of return on capital was twice as high as the growth rate in the past 150 years."""

4.1.4 Solutions For Inequality And Immobility




Health Mobility

Labor Policy

4.1.5 Effects Of Inequality And Immobility

Weaker Economic Growth (Meta-studies)

Weaker Economic Growth (Simple Studies)

Increased Crime

Decreased Home Ownership

Psychological Outcomes

Increased Death

4.1.6 Inheritance: Scope


Scope at Death

Scope by Income

4.1.7 Inheritance: Effects

Wealth Inequality From Inheritance


Reduced Labor-Force Participation

Wealth Inequality From Genetics


4.2.0 Public Housing Is Good

4.2.1 Housing First Vs Staircase Models

Models: Overview and Contrast

4.2.2 Housing First: HUD-VASH

The United States achieved substantial success in nearly halving homelessness among veterans by attaining the same sort of political consensus and providing resources for example, greatly expanding a scattered-site supported housing program for veterans called the HUD-VASH program2 . Without Finland s social benefit programs, the United States would need to rely more heavily on an expansion of housing subsidies, particularly the Housing Choice Voucher program. HUD-U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) Program

4.2.3 Housing First: Finland Success


In its greater reliance on congregate as well as scattered-site housing models, the Finnish approach to Housing First differs from the evidence-based programs pioneered by Pathways to Housing in New York City (Tsemberis, Gulcur, and Nakae, 2004) and again proven successful for people with serious mental illnesses in the five-city Canadian At Home/Chez Soi experiment (Aubry et al., 2016; Stergiopoulos et al., 2015).

Finland: Trends Over Time

Finland: Models Over Time

Finland: Construction

Finland: Integration

4.2.4 Voluntary Homelessness Is Very Small


Most Homeless People Wish to Obtain Housing

^ Stark 1983 publication: p570-591

Most Homeless People Are Currently or Chronically Disabled

Many Homeless People Are Veterans

4.2.5 California: Undersupply

4.2.6 Causes Of Undersupply

4.3.0 Redistribution: Helping The Poor Is Good

4.3.1 Private Social Spending Vs Public Spending: Scope (ancap Talking Point)

Scope: Private Social Spending

Scope: Private Charity

Public Spending in the Gilded Era [Unformatted, Reread Xxx]

4.3.2 Public Spending Reduces Poverty, Private Social Spending Does Not (ancap Talking Point)

Public Spending Reduces Poverty While Private Social Spending Doesn't Reduce Poverty

Public Spending Reduces Inequality

Scope: Private Charity by Sector

Private Charity Is Rarely Given to Anti-Poverty Sectors (Including Indirect Anti-Poverty)

Private Charity Is Frequently Given to Religious Sectors

4.3.3 Private Charity Vs Public Spending: Economic Cycles (ancap Talking Point)

Private Charity Is Procyclical (Reduces in Recessions: Bad)

Public Spending Is Countercyclical (Increases in Recessions: Good)

4.3.4 Basic Income


Economics Benefits

Social Benefits

Health Benefits

Psychological Benefits

4.3.5 Welfare




Non-Wasteful Consumption (See Section in "Causes of Inequality and Immobility")

4.3.6 Suburbs Bad

Increased Obesity

Suburbs Increase Expense: Halifax Data

Suburbs Decreased Depression

4.4.0 Healthcare: Public Single Provider (left Of Public Single Payer)

4.4.1 Medicare For All

Expense: Good Evidence

Expense: Bad Evidence



4.4.2 Spending


Causes: Prices

Causes: Wastage

Causes: Administration

Fraud: Private vs Public

4.4.3 Outcomes

Quality: Objective

Quality: Subjective


Outcomes: Mortality

Outcome: Doctor Information

Outcome: Lifespan

Outcome: Wait Times

Outcome: Cancer Survival

Alternative Explanations

4.4.4 Evidence-based Medicine

Most Medical Practice Is Based on Weak Evidence


4.5.0 Education: Public

4.5.1 Public Schools Outperform Private Schools


Private Schools Richer


Poor Students Cost More


4.5.2 Religious Schools Are Similar To Nonreligious Schools

Meta-Study: Religious Schools Slightly Better Than Public Schools

Large Dutch Sample: Religious Schools Not Significantly Differnt Than Public Schools

4.5.3 Education Policies: Homework Good



4.5.4 Education Policies: Teacher Performance Pay Good

Effective: Meta-Studies

Effective: Meta-Studies: Which Types Most Effective

Effective: High-Quality Studies


4.5.5 Education Policies: Progressive Teaching Methods

Historical Models: Rome, American Colonies

Progressive Education: Literature Review

Alternative Model: Ferrer

4.5.6 Education Policies: Progressive Teaching Methods: Grading Bad

Grading and Performance

Bias in Grading

4.5.7 Education Policies: Compulsory Schooling Good

Scrape Sources From Here

Existing Law by State

Scope of Problem

Mortality Reduction: Causal Evidence

Attendance Increase: Causal Evidence

Bad Policy: Punitive Responses Against Students for Truancy

Positive Externalities From Education

4.5.8 Education Policies: Summer Vacations Bad

Summer Vacation Effects on Learning: Early Studies

Summer Vacation Effects on Learning: Later Studies: No Major Effect, No Effect by Socioeconomics or Race

Summer Learning Reform: Policy Effects

4.5.9 Violence And Bullying At School [unformatted, Reread]

Violence in Schools / Bullying

4.5.10 Education Outcomes: Iq

Education Improves Iq

Iq Improves Education

4.5.11 College Degrees Are Worthwhile

College Degrees Over Time

Return on Investment

Economic Trends

Low-Quality Degrees / "Basket Weaving" / "Humanities Bad" / "Liberal Arts Bad"

4.5.12 General Education Courses Have Utility

General Education Increased Critical Thinking

General Education Increased Knowledge

General Education Increased Tolerance

4.5.13 College Tuition Increases Are Caused By Decreased State Subsidies

Declines in State Subsidies Can Explain Cost Increases

Administrative Bloat Cannot Explain Cost Increases

Construction Cannot Explain Cost Increases

State Loans Cannot Explain Cost Increases [Unformatted, Reread] (Ancap Talking Point)

4.5.14 American Education System


Spending: Total

Spending: Progressive

Outcomes: Not Progressive

Spending: Non-Teacher

4.5.15 Education And Ideology

Ideology Effects on Education

Education Effects on Ideology

4.5.16 Academia Bias Political Bias In Academia

Education Moves Students Left, Not Teachers

Political Orientation by Field

Lack of Bias in Grading

4.6.0 Economic Planning: Democratic Central Planning


4.6.1 Economic Planning: Empirics On Efficiency

Multi-Sector Studies: State-Owned Perform Comparably

Internet: State-Owned Perform Better

Concrete: More Competitors Increases Gross Value Added

4.6.2 Economic Planning: Empirics On Cyclical Crises


Stimulus Avoiding 2007-08 Recession

Usa: Bailout

Political Economy [Xxx Reread]

Effects: Mortality

4.6.3 Economic Planning: Theory On Computation And Efficiency

Theory: Critiques

Theory: Theoretical Computability (Economic Calculation Problem)

Theory: Practical Computability (Economic Calculation Problem)

Theory: Natural Resources

Theory: Double Marginalization

4.6.4 Economic Planning: Theory On Ltv (see Ltv Section For Critiques)

Theory: Nonhomogenous Labor

Theory: Labor Vouchers

4.6.5 Innovation Across Countries


There is no strong evidence that socdem countries have reduced innovativeness; if anything, the reverse might be true.

Social Democracy Encourages R&d

Social Democracy Can Encourage Startups

4.6.6 Innovation And Competition

Where Innovation Occurs: Disproportionately in Smaller Firms

Rates of R&d in Different Industries

Profit Motive and Bad Innovation

4.6.7 Innovation And Privatization: Weak Evidence

Evidence From China Suggests Privatization Increases Patents

4.6.8 Innovation And Welfare: Decent Evidence

Innovation Tied to Childhood Experiences and Location

4.6.9 Innovation And Pharmaceuticals: Public Sector Efficient

United States Not More Innovative

Canadian Pharmaceuticals Spend Proportionally More on R&d

Public Sector Efficient

4.6.10 Innovation: Patents

Patents May Cause/Protect Innovation

Patents Correlate With Innovation

4.7.0 Labor Market Policies: State Intervention Often Justified

4.7.1 Cooperatives And Mutuals: Scope

Scope: Saturation

Scope: Employment

Scope: Revenue

4.7.2 Cooperatives And Mutuals: Efficiency


Scarcity ("Why Don't More Exist?")

Strength & Survival

4.7.3 Cooperatives And Mutuals: Community Benefits


Reduction in Racism

4.7.4 Unions

Stock Value


4.7.5 Minimum Wage: Strong Evidence In Favor Of

Employment Effect: Consensus

Employment Effect: Meta-Analyses: Small Effect

Employment Effect: Neumark Meta-Study: Large

Employment Effect: Neumark Literature Review: Large

Median Wage

Employment Effects: Long-Term Effects Small

Monopsony: General Effects